ADHD

Trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad

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Trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad

Principales dificultades motoras, cognitivas y de lenguaje

El trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH) es una alteración psicopatológica. Su diagnóstico es controvertido puesto que algunas de sus características y componentes clínicos más frecuentes se superponen con las conductas propias del desarrollo normal.

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Comprensió lectora i TDAH: paper de la lectura de les paraules i la memòria de trebal

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Comprensió lectora i TDAH

Tenen problemes específics de comprensió lectora els nens amb TDAH?

En l’estudi de Cain.K i Bignell.S (2014), els autors intenten trobar què relació existeix entre els símptomes de inatenció i hiperactivitat amb la comprensió lectora.

Els autors demostren, que els problemes d’atenció estan relacionats amb una baixa comprensió lectora. Aquesta relació està intervinguda per la capacitat de lectura de les paraules. En canvi una alta hiperactivitat està relacionada amb una baixa comprensió oral més que amb una baixa comprensió lectora (Cain & Bignell, 2014).

Encara que la relació entre TDAH i la capacitat de llegir paraules és coneguda, hi ha estudis que suggereixen que els problemes de comprensió lectora en el TDAH es deuen també a la dificultat de construir una representació mental de la lectura de manera coherent. Molts nens amb TDAH poden llegir de manera correcta però després no són capaces d’explicar de manera seqüencial el que han llegit. Aquestes dificultats estarien més relacionades amb problemes en la memòria de treball (Miller et al., 2013).

La inatenció també és un bon predictor de la baixa fluència en la lectura, de la baixa comprensió lectora i de la baixa capacitat general de lectura. Els nens amb conductes inatentes acostumen puntuar més baix en les proves de comprensió lectora que les nenes inatentes (Pham, 2013).

Un dels factors de risc per desenvolupar TDAH és el consum de nicotina durant l’embaràs. Nous estudis suggereixen que el consum de nicotina també està relacionat amb els nivells baixos de comprensió lectora en l’edat escolar (Cho, Frijters, Zhang, Miller, & Gruen, 2013).

Referències bibliogràfiques:

Cain, K., & Bignell, S. (2014). Reading and listening comprehension and their relation to inattention and hyperactivity. The British Journal of Educational Psychology,84(Pt 1), 108–124. doi:10.1111/bjep.12009

Cho, K., Frijters, J. C., Zhang, H., Miller, L. L., & Gruen, J. R. (2013). Prenatal exposure to nicotine and impaired reading performance. The Journal of Pediatrics162(4), 713–718.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.09.041

Miller, A. C., Keenan, J. M., Betjemann, R. S., Willcutt, E. G., Pennington, B. F., & Olson, R. K. (2013). Reading comprehension in children with ADHD: cognitive underpinnings of the centrality deficit. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology41(3), 473–483. doi:10.1007/s10802-012-9686-8

Pham, A. V. (2013). Differentiating Behavioral Ratings of Inattention, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity in Children: Effects on Reading Achievement. Journal of Attention Disorders. doi:10.1177/1087054712473833

Reading Comprehension and ADHD: the role of reading words and working memory

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Reading Comprehension and ADHD: the role of reading words and working memory

Reading and ADHDDo children with ADHD have specific reading comprehension problems? In the study of Cain.K and Bignell.S (2014), the authors try to find the relationship between the symptoms of inattention and the hyperactivity reading comprehension. The authors show that attention problems are associated with low reading comprehension. This relationship is mediated by the ability to read words. High hyperactivity instead is related to low oral understanding rather than a low reading comprehension (Cain & Bignell, 2014).

Although the relationship between ADHD and the ability to read words is known, studies suggest that the problems of reading comprehension in ADHD are also due to the difficulty of constructing a mental representation of reading consistently. Many children with ADHD can read correctly but then they are not able to explain what they have read sequentially. These difficulties would be related to problems in working memory (Miller et al., 2013).

Inattention is also a good predictor of low reading fluency, low reading comprehension and low overall reading ability. Children with inattentive behaviors tend to score lower on tests of reading comprehension than inattentive girls (Pham, 2013). One of the risk factors for developing ADHD is nicotine during pregnancy. New studies suggest that nicotine is also associated with low levels of reading comprehension at school age (Cho, Frijters, Zhang, Miller, & Gruen, 2013).

Bibliography

Cain, K., & Bignell, S. (2014). Reading and listening comprehension and their relation to inattention and hyperactivity. The British Journal of Educational Psychology84(Pt 1), 108–124. doi:10.1111/bjep.12009

Cho, K., Frijters, J. C., Zhang, H., Miller, L. L., & Gruen, J. R. (2013). Prenatal exposure to nicotine and impaired reading performance. The Journal of Pediatrics162(4), 713–718.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.09.041

Miller, A. C., Keenan, J. M., Betjemann, R. S., Willcutt, E. G., Pennington, B. F., & Olson, R. K. (2013). Reading comprehension in children with ADHD: cognitive underpinnings of the centrality deficit. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology41(3), 473–483. doi:10.1007/s10802-012-9686-8

Pham, A. V. (2013). Differentiating Behavioral Ratings of Inattention, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity in Children: Effects on Reading Achievement. Journal of Attention Disorders. doi:10.1177/1087054712473833

Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) and ADHD

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Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS)Restless Leg Syndrome and ADHD

affects 1,5 million children and adolescents. Often begins during childhood or adolescence and can result in poor intellectual and/or emotional function. Although symptoms are worse at night, it is possible to experience it throughout daytime.

CAUSES

  • Genetics: Autosomal – dominant hereditary pattern
  • Chromosomes genetic loci 9p, 12q, and 14q.
  • Dopamine abnormality.
  • Iron deficiency: low serum ferritin levels.

SIGNS

  • Fidgeting or stretching legs in bed.
  • Hyperactivity in class.
  • Sleep deprivation and irritability in the morning.

PERIODIC LIMB MOVEMENTS DURING SLEEP

  • Brief jerks (0,5 seconds) of the limbs during sleep in 20 second intervals.
  • Present in 80% of individuals with RLS.

FAMILY HISTORY

  • Biological parents with RLS have 50:50 chance of passing RLS to their children.

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION

  • Mild degree of iron deficiency.

WHAT CAN I DO?

TREATMENT

  • Good Sleep Habits: Sleep needed per age:

Age 2: 12 hours
Age 5: 11 hours
Age 10: 10 hours
Adolescence: 9 hours
Adulthood: 7 hours

  • Teens

Avoid caffeine intake in the evening.
Regular exercise.
Bedroom without TV, computers, etc.

  • Iron supplementation and pharmacological treatment.

DIAGNOSE

  • Polysomnography

RELATIONSHIP WITH ADHD

  • RLS can aggravate inattention
  • Sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function and memory.
  • Can exist a subgroup of ADHD having RLS.
  • Methylphenidate does not worsen SLP.

 

References

Ruottinen, H. M., Partinen, M., Hublin, C., Bergman, J., Haaparanta, M., Solin, O., & Rinne, J. O. (2000). An FDOPA PET study in patients with periodic limb movement disorder and restless legs syndrome. Neurology, 54(2), 502-502. doi:10.1212/WNL.54.2.502

Turjanski, N., Lees, A. J., & Brooks, D. J. (1999). Striatal dopaminergic function in restless legs syndrome: 18F-dopa and 11C-raclopride PET studies. Neurology, 52(5), 932-932. doi:10.1212/WNL.52.5.932

 

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Attention and Creativity: The Role of Meditation

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The relationship between attentional processes and the ability to be creative is one of the aspects that try to study the cognitive neurosciences. The ability to be creative involves a number of cognitive processes that depend on several factors. Nowadays we know that the information is stored in the brain in neural networks. Such neural networks are interconnected and are located in different brain areas. Creativity is the ability to find new ideas and relationships between objects. These relationships gives way to new applications: for example, Aristotle finds a new way of measuring the density of a body through the effect of any body that is submerged in water.

Attention and CreativityThe difference between creativity and intelligence has been studied extensively, with results that tend to differentiate these two concepts (Batey & Furnham, 2010). One of the most influential psychologists in the definition of intelligence was Joy Paul Guilford. Guilford distinguishes two main cognitive processes in most creative activities: divergent thinking and convergent thinking.

  • Divergent Thinking is a style of thinking that generates many new ideas, with more than one correct solution. A good example of divergent thinking is a sessions of brainstorming, that aims to generate as many ideas as possible on a specific topic. Divergent Thinking can be measured by specific tests, for example, by the Alternative Uses Test. This test consists on naming as many uses as possible to a simple everyday object, with a time limit of 2 minutes. The test also measures divergent thinking through four subcategories: fluency (how many uses are given), originality (much less frequent use), flexibility (in how many uses aredistributed) and elaboration (detail in the answers).
  • Convergent Thinking is considered as the process of generating a possible solution to a particular problem. The emphasis is on speed and is based on a high precision and logic. Creativity is the ability to discover infrequent associations to solve the problem. Mednick’s Remote Associates Test (RAT), is one of the most used to evaluate convergent thinking: three common stimulus words that appear to be unrelated are presented, and the person has to think of a fourth word that is somehow related to each of the first three words.

Slagter et al. (2007) observed that meditation leads to better performance on a task of divided or distributed attention. In Colzato et al. (2012) it is stated that one of the ways to enhance creativity can be meditation. There are two main kinds of meditative training, of focused attention  and open monitoring.

  • In the Focused Attention Meditation, the person focuses on a particular topic: a thought, an object… Everything else that might tend to attract attention, such as bodily sensations, environmental noise or intrusive thoughts, is actively ignored to redirect the constant attention again in the focus point. Many times this focus point is usually breathing.
  • In the Open Monitoring Meditation, the person is free to perceive and observe any feeling or thought without focusing on a concept in mind, so attention is flexible and unrestricted.

Study results indicate that open monitoring meditation can improve creativity divergent processes because they force the brain to work in a certain way. The study suggests that this practice reduces the degree of top-down regulation.

In conclusion, if you want to be more creative, apart from being less stressed, meditation can help you!

References

Batey, M., & Furnham, A. (2006). Creativity, Intelligence, and Personality: A Critical Review of the Scattered Literature.Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs132(4), 355-429. doi:10.3200/MONO.132.4.355-430

Colzato, L. S., Ozturk, A., & Hommel, B. (2012). Meditate to Create: The Impact of Focused-Attention and Open-Monitoring Training on Convergent and Divergent Thinking. Frontiers in Psychology3. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00116

Slagter, H. A., Lutz, A., Greischar, L. L., Francis, A. D., Nieuwenhuis, S., Davis, J. M., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Mental Training Affects Distribution of Limited Brain Resources. PLoS Biol5(6), e138. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050138

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ADHD

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ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) is one of the most prevalent (most common) psychological disorders in children and adolescents. It is a disorder that has several groups of symptoms ADHDand presentation can vary even among children. Without proper treatment, it can lead to problems in the family, at school, and in relationships with peers, and therefore it is of psychological disorders of childhood onset that receives more attention from psychiatrists and child psychologists, as well as research groups worldwide.

Therefore, here is a compendium of articles that will expand on, with the aim of raising awareness of this disorder.

  1. ADHD and DSM-V diagnostic criteria
  2. ADHD and emotional memory
  3. Cerebral cortex development in ADHD
  4. Restless Leg Syndrome and ADHD

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The Sandman: The Story of Sanderson Mansnoozie by William Joyce

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Book recommendation

 

Sandy

Tittle: The Sandman: The story of Sanderson Mansnoozie      Author: William Joyce

Publisher: Atheneum Books for Young Readers   Year of publication: 2012.

THE AUTHOR

 William Joyce is an american writter an illustrator. Is the author of several books for children, among those, The Guardians of the Childhood,  which inspired the film Rise of the Guardians (DreamWorks). He was also the author of  characters for animation films such as Toy Story and A Bug’s Life. In 2012 he won an Oscar (together with Brandon Olferburg) for the best  animation short film for The Fantastic Flying Books of Mr. Morris Lessmore.  Do not hesitate to fly with Mr. Morris…

ABOUT THE BOOK

Sandman is the second picture book of a book series named The Guardians of ChildhoodThe Guardians of Childhood (The Man in the Moon, Nicholas St. North, Toothiana, Sandman and E. Aster bunnymund)  protect children from Shadow, the King  of Nightmares. The Man in the Moon needs to keep children safe at nights. He can do it alone, except when the moon is less than full and bright. For this purpose, will ask for the help of Sanderson Mansnoozie (Sandman), who flies with his shooting star making people’s dreams come true… With extraordinary illustrations, its reading teaches us that to dream and to face to our fears is the first step to overcome them.

Dr. Guilera – Dr.Bayarri