Telepsychology

Mindfulness Meditation Part 6

Posted on Actualizado enn

Science & Mindfulness Meditation

Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinnn, 2003) is a meditation-based treatment program applied to diverse clinical conditions. It seems that MBSR improves attention, nonjudgmental attitude and focus on the present.

Nonjudgmental attitude may be related to an emotional response. Emotional resonses are linked to the emotional brain, Mindfulness meditation 6particularly with the amygdala. It has been demonstrate that the response of the amygdala to negative distractors in a sustained attention task is better in experienced meditators (Brefczynski-Lewis et al., 2007). In normal life, negative distractors tend to focus our attention on the future more than in the present. For example, if I am studying for an exam, my fear of fail on the exam, disrupts my sustained attention on what I am learning. At the same time, my attention jumps from the present to the future.

There is a big difference on studying for achieve or pass the test, and studying for learning. In the first condition, you will need a big attentional effort because your motivation is clearly in the future and not in the process itself. The process itself always happens in the present. It can not always be ensured that you will pass the exam with a mindful brain.

 

HOW TO MEDITATE

  • TRY ON SUNSET.
  • TRY WITH FRIENDS.
  • DO NOT TRY WITH RELAXATION MUSIC.
  • DO NOT TRY IN YOUR BED, BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP.
  • YOU NEED TO MASTER THE EXERCISE BEFORE TRYING IT IN VERY BAD DAYS.

 

References:

Brefczynski-Lewis, J. A., Lutz, A., Schaefer, H. S., Levinson, D. B., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(27), 11483-11488. doi:10.1073/pnas.0606552104

Jensen, C. G., Vangkilde, S., Frokjaer, V., & Hasselbalch, S. G. (s.d.). Mindfulness training affects attention—Or is it attentional effort? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141(1), 106-123. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0024931

Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Constructivism in the Human Sciences, 8(2), 73-107.

 

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Mindfulness Meditation Part 5

Posted on Actualizado enn

There are two styles of meditation. The first, is to try to focus our attention on a single object. The second is to monitor our attention in a Mindfulness meditaton 4moment-by-moment experienceBoth of them could be viewed as an attentional training and a possible way to cultivate our well-being. Focused attention meditation is not a passive work. You must constantly and actively monitor the quality of your attention. You must constantly and actively monitor the quality of your attention. In our normal lives, attention jumps from an object to object, without any work. Monitoring implies to recognize that attention wanders away. Then, you must consciously refocus your attention to the chosen object.

Science & Mindfulness Meditation

There are different and specific neural systems associated with meditation. These systems are the neural network for some cognitive functions:

  • Conflict monitoring (cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex).
  • Selective attention (temporoparietal junction, prefrontal cortex).
  • Sustained attention (right frontal cortex; prefrontal cortex).

HOW TO MEDITATE

  • SIT UP WITH YOUR BACK “STRAIGHT RIGHT”.
  • FOCUS, FOCUS, FOCUS ON EXPIRATION.
  • STAY WITH FIVE MINUTES EVERYDAY: AT LEAST THREE MONTHS!!
  • DON’T TRY TO GET THE PRIZE. IT’S NOT A COMPETITION WITH YOURSELF.

References:

Corbetta, M., & Shulman, G. L. (2002). Control of goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention in the brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3(3), 201-215. doi:10.1038/nrn755

Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2007). Research on Attention Networks as a Model for the Integration of Psychological Science. Annual Review of Psychology, 58(1), 1-23. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085516

Weissman, D. H., Roberts, K. C., Visscher, K. M., & Woldorff, M. G. (2006). The neural bases of momentary lapses in attention. Nature Neuroscience, 9(7), 971-978. doi:10.1038/nn1727

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Mindfulness Meditation Part 4

Posted on Actualizado enn

SCIENCE & MINDFULNESS MEDITATION

In mindfulness practice, we have found two main attentional mechanisms. The first one is centered on focused attention. The exercise consist to focus your attention to an object, usually the object is your breathing.

mundfulness 4_1

The second one is centered on open attention. The exercise consists of an observation of the mental flow but without any identification; as if you were a mental observer of your own ideas and feelings.

mindfulness 4_2

In the study of Moore et al., 2012, they demonstrate that regular and brief mindfulness meditation practice improves the capacity of self-regulation of attention. Meditation group perform better on the Stroop test task. Reaction time was better in the meditation group than in the control group. We hypothesized that working of sustained attention could improve inhibition of response.

HOW TO MEDITATE

  • SEAT WITH THE BOTTON OF THE FOOT TOTALLY IN CONTACT WITH THE FLOOR.
  • FOCUS ON TO EXPIRATE WITH YOUR MOUTH.
  • STAY WITH FIVE MINUTS EVERY DAY: MORNING? AFTERNOON? IT DOESN´T MATTER!! JUST DO IT.
  • DON´T TRY TO EVALUATE YOUR PROGRESSSION. IT´S NORMAL THAT NOTHING HAPPENS.

References:

Jha, A. P., Krompinger, J., & Baime, M. J. (2007). Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7(2), 109-119. doi:10.3758/CABN.7.2.109

Moore, A., Gruber, T., Derose, J., & Malinowski, P. (2012). Regular, brief mindfulness meditation practice improves electrophysiological markers of attentional control. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2012.00018

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What Would Google Do?

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 BOOK RECOMMENDATION

Book_Jeff JarvisTitle: What Would Google Do?                         Author: Jeff Jarvis                                                  Publisher: Harper Collins, 2009.

Jeff Jarvis (1954) is an American journalist, creator and founding of Entertainment Weekly and Sunday editor of the New York Daily News. He is associate professor and director of the Tow-Knight Center of Entrepreneurial Journalism at the City University of New York’s Graduate School of Journalism, and his blog Buzzmachine.com is one of the Web’s most widely respected blogs.

Nowadays, the market where a business idea grows is no longer in our city or country, but worldwide. What Would Google Do? is not only a book, but an indispensable manual for surviving in the Internet age. Google has become the fastest-growing company in the history, which means that if you want your business succeed, you should think like Google.The author give the cues to do that, applying a set of principles not just to emerging technologies but to other industries like airlines, television, education, healthcare and others.

“Google is not just a company, it is an entirely new way of thinking about understanding who we are and what we want. Jarvis hoas done something really important: extend that approach to business and culture, revealing just how revolutionary it is ”  Chris Anderson, author of The Long Tail.

Telepsychology for Adolescents

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Telepsychology can be combined with other innovative approaches but technical barriers are far from being overcome. We need to develop standard guidelines for children and adolescents and to identify weaknesses in this field. Telepsychology is usually delivered in person but we need more applications such as online interactive instruction or treatment monitoring. The term “patient’s site” refers to the patients location, while “provider’s site” refers to the Smoking Cessation Programstelepsychologists location. Another terminology is originating site (patient) and distant site (psychologist). One big problem in telepsychology is the access for children living in rural or impoverished areas. The amount of data that can travel through the communication network is another important problem, because only big cities tend to have big bandwidth (Myers, Cain, Work Group on Quality Issues, & American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Staff, 2008). Internet interventions can be used for several pathologies and can be delivered in different formats. Telepsychologists can use synchronous chat services, email, video-documentaries and Apps.  

Today we present five different programs targeting adolescents, for smoking cessation. These programs can be offered by physicians (Pathways to Change [PTC; Hollis et al., 2005] and Stomp Out Smokes [SOS; Patten et al., 2006]), or in the schools (Breathing Room [Woodruff et al., 2007], Consider This [Buller et al., 2008] and Smoking Zine [Norman et al., 2008]). All programs incorporate psychoeducation and when email is used a trained moderator provide individualized feedback. Programs which in turn are also used in face to face programs include an assessment of stage of change, and a follow-up feedback. The effectiveness of these programs is controversial but in a large follow-up with an Australian sample (Buller et al., 2008) they found statistically significant reduction in past 30-days smoking prevalence rates. However, in another study in a U.S. sample, no differences were found between conditions in past 30-days prevalence rates. We can conclude that more research is needed on this field. 

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References

Buller, D. B., Borland, R., Woodall, W. G., Hall, J. R., Hines, J. M., Burris-Woodall, P., … Saba, L. (2008). Randomized trials on consider this, a tailored, internet-delivered smoking prevention program for adolescents. Health education & behavior: the official publication of the Society for Public Health Education, 35(2), 260-281. doi:10.1177/1090198106288982

Hollis, J. F., Polen, M. R., Whitlock, E. P., Lichtenstein, E., Mullooly, J. P., Velicer, W. F., & Redding, C. A. (2005). Teen reach: outcomes from a randomized, controlled trial of a tobacco reduction program for teens seen in primary medical care. Pediatrics, 115(4), 981-989. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-0981

Myers, K., Cain, S., Work Group on Quality Issues, & American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Staff. (2008). Practice parameter for telepsychiatry with children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(12), 1468-1483. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e31818b4e13

Patten, C. A., Croghan, I. T., Meis, T. M., Decker, P. A., Pingree, S., Colligan, R. C., … Gustafson, D. H. (2006). Randomized clinical trial of an Internet-based versus brief office intervention for adolescent smoking cessation. Patient education and counseling, 64(1-3), 249-258. doi:10.1016/j.pec.2006.03.001

Woodruff, S. I., Conway, T. L., Edwards, C. C., Elliott, S. P., & Crittenden, J. (2007). Evaluation of an Internet virtual world chat room for adolescent smoking cessation. Addictive behaviors, 32(9), 1769-1786. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.12.008

Telepsychology: Vocabulary

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telepsychology_vocabularyTechnology allows clinicians to interact with patients from different locations. As psychotherapy relies on conversation between the clinician and the patient, therapy online is an alternative to an office visit. Today we explain to you some of the vocabulary attached to telepsychology.

E-health: refers to health services through any electronic media. Nowadays internet is the main frame of e-health, but telephone and WhatsAppp are also used. E-health must be provided by a clinician.

ITV communication is the interaction of two o more individuals through electronic media in real time. It could be from a clinician to a patient or between clinicians sharing information in real time.

Telemedicine is the use of ITV to provide medical care. In child telemedicine both parents and children are treated as patients. Telemedicine is delivered in person.

Telepsychology is a specific term for the aplication of online psychology.

The first use of telemedicine was in the 1950s. In the University of Nebraska a closed-circuit television system was used in psychiatry.

Original article:  Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,

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